Made from composite material (some of the same material as used in our
structural parts) and PZT (an amorphous piezoceramic), a typical
biomorph layup is shown below. In practice, we use both unimorphs
(single layer) and bimorphs (two layers of piezoceramic material).
Given the geometric constraints usually dictated by the structure
itself, the parameters of the actuator like length, width, extension
ratio, and width ratio are determined based upon laminate plate design
as discussed in the paper reference given below.
Optimal Energy Density Piezoelectric Bending Actuators
R.J. Wood, E. Steltz, and R.S. Fearing
Sensors and Actuators, Vol 119/2 pp 476-488, 2005.